Clinically, tattoos are divided into professional, amateur, cosmetic, traumatic and iatrogenic tattoos. Professional tattoo refers to the tattoo artist injecting one or more organic color dyes into the dermis with the same depth. There is almost no pigment in the epidermis. The tattoo boundary is clear and the dyeing is uniform.
The main components of the dyes used are: red dye contains mercury, yellow contains cadmium, green contains chromium and blue contains cobalt. Amateur tattoos are performed by non professionals. They are mostly injected into the dermis with carbon or ink, with different injection depths and uneven dyeing; Tattoos are mostly tattoos, lines, lip lines or full lips. They are usually finished by hand. Common dyes are brown, black and red ink, and iron or iron oxide is contained in the ink.
Traumatic tattoo refers to the entry of foreign bodies into the skin after trauma. There are many kinds of foreign bodies, including soil, glass, metal and some carbonaceous substances, which can enter the deep layer of the skin and form granuloma. Iatrogenic tattoo refers to tattooing on the lesion in order to cover up some skin diseases, injuries or defects, so as to cover up the primary disease.
Due to various reasons, more and more patients are required to remove tattoos. There are many traditional treatment methods, such as surgical resection, microcrystalline grinding, freezing, electrocautery, chemical corrosion, argon ion laser, ultra pulsed carbon dioxide laser, etc. these methods have certain curative effects, but they will leave scars that are difficult to remove and make people worry about regeneration. With the improvement of cosmetic laser theory and manufacturing technology, laser has become the main means to treat tattoos and various pigmented diseases. Q-switched ruby laser, Q-switched emerald laser and Q-switched Nd: YAG laser can effectively remove tattoos.